DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1902. In addition, 25 mg kg-1 of PA significantly suppressed MIA PaCa-2 tumor growth in vivo without toxicity, which correlated with induction of apoptosis and expression of ER stress related proteins in tumor tissues. To further emphasize the difference between groups, t-test was used to compare the mean tumor volumes of treatment groups to control at day 34. Fold change P < 1E-05. In order to investigate the effect of PA and its possible mechanisms of action with regard to gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer, we treated MIA PaCa-2 cells with PA and the expression of genes was monitored using array technology. The CEL files were scanned for defects and none were found, The CEL files were imported into Partek Genomics Suite for analysis (Partek, Inc., St. Louis, Mo) RMA (Robust Multi-Array Average) signals were generated for the core probe sets using the RMA background correction, quantile normalization and summarization by Median Polish [30]. However, the significant increase of ER stress related genes, such as HSPA6 which encoding the heat shock 70kDa protein 6 (HSP70B') and CHOP/GADD153, were not observed in the tumors of PA treated mice comparing with respective controls (Fig ​(Fig8A8A and ​and8B).8B). Gene expression profiling by microarray has been widely used in screening drug targets [48]. Oncol., 42 (6) (2013), pp. 1. Performed the experiments: SC KS JNM GES DS. Zhao YY, Feng YL, Du X, Xi ZH, Cheng XL, Wei F. Diuretic activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the surface layer of Poria cocos in rat, Inhibition of breast cancer metastasis via PITPNM3 by pachymic acid, Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, Pachymic acid impairs breast cancer cell invasion by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. A 2018 study in the journal Cells reported that an extract of P. cocos exhibited cytotoxicity (cell-killing abilities) to four human lung cancer cell lines. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. 22 June, 2017. β-actin was used as loading control. The endoplasmic reticulum: a target for new anticancer drugs, Enhancing proteotoxic stress as an anticancer strategy, A stressful life (or death): combinatorial proteotoxic approaches to cancer-selective therapeutic vulnerability, Stress management at the ER: regulators of ER stress-induced apoptosis. 187 0. Xie Q, Khaoustov VI, Chung CC, Sohn J, Krishnan B, Lewis DE, et al. Altered cell apoptosis is considered to be an important mechanism in pancreatic cancer chemotherapy resistant and is an attractive research area [33]. Five-micrometer sections were stained with H&E. Poria cocos is a medicinal mushroom that is widely used in traditional Asian medicine. Gene expression levels were normalized and analyzed using Microarray Data Portal (MDP) by 2-way ANOVA using cell line and treatment as factors plus the interaction of cell line and treatment. Boelens J, Lust S, Offner F, Bracke ME, Vanhoecke BW. In addition, the induction of nuclear DNA fragmentation associated with PA was rescued by TUDCA treatment (Fig ​(Fig3A3A and ​and3B).3B). As we observed significantly enhanced protein expression of XBP-1s, ATF4, Hsp70 and CHOP by PA treatment, it is necessary to confirm that ER stress is induced in our model. 1870 CHENG et al: Poria cocos TRITERPENES INHIBIT PANCREATIC CANCER Extraction and purification. Eye Health: Top Doc’s Integrated Approach, Face Value: Investing in Metals and Money. 2011–07). We observed that apoptosis induced by PA in chemotherapy resistant pancreatic cancer cells was not cell specific, as assessed in different gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 by detecting the presence of nuclear DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage activation. Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. The microarray studies were carried out using the facilities of the Center for Medical Genomics at Indiana University School of Medicine. *P<0.050 was considered to be significant when compared to control (n = 7) by Student t-test. The tumors were harvested and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin at 4°C for 24 h or snap frozen and stored separately in liquid nitrogen. Recent studies showed that diindolylmethane (DIM) induces autophagy in ovarian cancer cells through regulating ER stress [65]. That being said it isstill too early to tell if taking poria can aid in cancer prevention. Apoptosis inducing effects of PA were further confirmed by increased expression of cleaved PARP (c-PARP). Michael Landon, Luciano Pavarotti, Sally Ride, Jack Benny, Patrick Swayze. high glucose metabolic rate) in the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells exhibit higher levels of ER stress compared to normal cells [64].