Heat transfer occurs through one of 3 methods, conduction, convection, and radiation. Hashimoto and others (1992b) developed a simple integrated model to predict the survivors of E. coli under predicted temperature distribution during FIR pasteurization. as affected by different drying methods. FREE Shipping. No contact or medium between the two bodies is needed for the energy transfer. Infrared can be used in cooking and heating food as it predominantly heats the opaque, absorbent objects, rather than the air around them. Role of mid- and far-infrared for improving dehydration efficiency in beef jerky drying. Improving the infrared drying and rehydration of potato slices using simple approaches: Perforations and ethanol. Effect of convective, infrared and microwave heating on drying rates, mass transfer characteristics, milling quality and microstructure of steam gelatinized Paddy. Infrared Heaters Work Instantly. Infrared (IR) radiation heating, a promising drying method, can penetrate the material and be converted into thermal energy by molecular vibration to heat the product. Potential application of infrared assisted freeze drying (IRAFD) for banana snacks: Drying kinetics, energy consumption, and texture. Decreasing the sample depth also accelerates the inactivation of spores (Sawai and others 1997) and E. coli and S. aureus (Hashimoto and others 1992a). Course material. The populations in a suspension of bacterial spores subjected to lethal heat treatment were simulated using a composite model involving simultaneous, independent activation and inactivation of dormant but viable spores, and inactivation of activated spores. The wavelength at which the maximum radiation occurs is determined by the temperature of the IR heating elements. There is a paucity of information in the area of advanced 3D radiation modeling. Impingement of infrared energy on the food surface may induce changes in the electronic, vibrational, and rotational states of atoms and molecules. Stabilization of immature rice grain using infrared radiation. Infrared drying: A promising technique for bulgur production, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00024.x, http://www.brain.go.jp/Organ/sei0301e.htm, Gives spectral blackbody emissive power distribution, Gives the transmitted spectral irradiance (, Reflectivity (ρ): ratio of reflected part of incoming radiation to the total incoming radiation, absorptivity (α): ratio of absorbed part of incoming radiation to the total incoming radiation, and transmissivity (τ): ratio of transmitted part of incoming radiation to the total incoming radiation (, Stainless steel plate at water activity of 0.7, 25% increase by combination of IR heating and convectional heating, Germination rates (heat treatment for 63 s each), IR heat treated (110 to 115 °C): 6.14 g/16 g N, Reduction in urease activity at 140 °C and 28% moisture (d.b. curing of coatings, forming of plastics, annealing, plastic welding, and print drying. The spectral characteristics of black body radiation from objects at different temperatures indicate that the curves give the maximum possible radiation that can be emitted at a selected temperature. For example, at water activity of 0.7, decimal reduction times of heaters A, B, and C were approximately 4, 12, and 22 min, respectively. Scientific Tracks Abstracts: J Food Process Technol. Carrot slices heated by FIR radiation contained damaged cells only in the first half millimeter from the surface and exhibited the texture characteristic of the raw tissue, thus providing the potential of FIR energy technology in the frozen carrots industry. The capital cost of gas heaters is higher, while the operating cost is cheaper than that of electric infrared systems. Infrared Heating for Food and Agricultural Processing: 14: Pan, Zhongli, Atungulu, Griffiths Gregory: Amazon.sg: Books Planck’s law gives the spectral-energy distribution of radiation emitted by the black body, as a function of temperature and wavelength E (λ, T). 78:281-288. It should be noted that Dagerskog and Österström (1979) first used a bandpass filter (Optical Coating Laboratory Inc., type nr L‐01436‐7) in their frying experiment of pork to transmit only the wavelength above 1.507 μm, which turned out be a good example for design of selective IR heating systems to emit the spectral regions of interest. Sakai and Hanzawa (1994) have discussed the effects of the radiant characteristics of heaters on the crust formation and color development at the surfaces of foods such as white bread and wheat flour. Higher moisture content and sensory quality of the products was obtained using combined FIR and NIR heaters compared to the conventional method. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology. In general, the operating efficiency of an electric IR heater ranges from 40% to 70%, while that of gas‐fired IR heaters ranges from 30% to 50% (Hung and others 1995). Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Simulation indicated that the 3‐way coupled model predicted the temperature and moisture contents better than the 2‐way coupled heat and mass transfer model. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. D values of B. subtilis at 120, 140, 160, and 180 °C were 26 min, 66, 9.3, and 3.2 s, respectively. IR heating is a unique process; however, presently, the application and understanding of IR heating in food processing is still in its infancy, unlike the electronics and allied sector where IR heating is a mature industrial technology. Therefore, the aim of this review is to evaluate existing knowledge in the area of IR heating, provide insight for the relation between product properties and engineering processes, and present an up‐to‐date view on further research. Sheridan and Shilton (1999) evaluated the efficacy of cooking hamburger patties using infrared sources at λmax of 2.7 μm (MIR) and at λmax of 4.0 μm (FIR). In particular, exponential phase cells had more cell wall and membrane damage than stationary phase cells. Hence, it is a challenge to cut off the entire spectral distribution to obtain a specific bandwidth. Studies to investigate the superiority of FIR to NIR radiation have also been found in the literature. Comparison of lipid degradation in raw and infrared stabilized rice bran and rice bran oil: matrix effect. IR heating is attractive primarily for surface heating applications. Sakai and Hanzawa (1994) assumed that most FIR radiation energy would be absorbed at the surface of a food system due to the predominant energy absorption of water. Changes in the electronic state corresponding to the wavelength range 0.2 to 0.7 µm (ultraviolet and visible rays), Changes in the vibrational state corresponding to wavelength range 2.5 to 1000 µm (FIR), and, Changes in the rotational state corresponding to wavelengths above 1000 µm (microwaves). In general, spores are more resistant than vegetative cells. Development of a continuous drying apparatus equipped with FIR heaters, NIR heaters, and hot air blast can reduce the economic costs, drying time, and operating temperature. Infrared heating has been applied in drying, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, and sterilization of food products. Author Demirci is with Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802, U.S.A. To take account of this, the concept of grey bodies is used, and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation is modified to, The radiator is the main component of any IR equipment that comes in different types and shapes. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods. Similarly, E. coli population in the samples with 1.3 and 2.2 mm in depth showed approximately 1.33 and 1.66 log10 CFU/mL at 321 °K. Inactivation of lipoxygenase and keeping quality of full fat flour, Decontamination of milk and water by pulsed UV light and infrared heating, Modeling and measurements of dryers for coated paper, Effect of far‐infrared radiation and heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of water extracts from peanut hulls, Method of processing food utilizing infra‐red radiation, Effects of far‐infrared radiation on the freeze‐drying of sweet potato, Dehydration of yam slices using FIR‐assisted freeze‐drying, Drying of potato by far‐infrared radiation, Fate of post‐cooking microbial contaminants of some major menu items, Infrared processing of dry peas, canola, and canola screenings, Influence of FIR irradiation on paddy moisture reduction and milling quality after fluidized bed drying, Micronization effects on composition and properties of tofu, Accelerated drying of welsh onion by far infrared radiation under vacuum conditions, Effect of prepackage and postpackage pasteurization on postprocess elimination of, Studies on infrared and convective drying of nonhygroscopic solids, Effect of near‐infrared radiation and jet impingement heat transfer on crust formation of bread, Analysis of color development during roasting of hazelnuts using response surface methodology, A three‐dimensional control volume approach to modeling heat and mass transfer in food materials, Simulation of three‐dimensional infrared drying using a set of three‐coupled equations by the control volume method, Kinetic effects of lethal temperatures on population dynamics of bacterial spores, Electromagnetic radiations in food science, Applications and advances in far‐infrared heating in Japan, Heat transfer analysis in a food heated by far infrared radiation, Reflow soldering using selective infrared radiation, Infrared radiative drying in food engineering: a process analysis, Pasteurization of bacterial spores in liquid medium by far‐infrared irradiation, Inactivation characteristics shown by enzymes and bacteria treated with far‐infrared radiative heating, A comparison of the hydrolysis of sweet potato starch with b‐amylase and infrared radiation allows prediction of reducing sugar production, Thin‐layer infrared radiation drying of onion slices, Application of far‐infrared radiation to cooking of meat products, Investigation of far infrared radiation heating as an alternative technique for surface decontamination of strawberry, Simple modeling of infrared drying of fresh apple slices, Transient temperature distribution of a multiplayer composite wall with effects of internal thermal radiation and conduction, A synopsis of the strategies and efficient resolution of techniques used for modeling and numerically simulating the drying process, Mathematical modeling and numerical techniques in drying technology, Inactivation of microorganisms on wheat grain by using infrared irradiation, Proceedings of Intl. 84. On the other hand, lipids show strong absorption phenomena over the entire infrared radiation spectrum with 3 stronger absorption bands situated at 3 to 4, 6, and 9 to 10 μm, whereas carbohydrates yield 2 strong absorption bands centered at 3 and 7 to 10 μm (Sandu 1986; Rosenthal 1992). Because infrared heat penetrates and agitates food molecules instead of heating the surrounding area, food cooks very quickly. The total energy being emitted at all wavelengths (ET) by the black body at a specific temperature from an IR source. Effect of power: Increase in the power of infrared heating source produces more energy and thus total energy absorbed by microorganisms (M/Os) increases, leading to microbial inactivation. The infrared spectra of such mixtures originate with the mechanical vibrations of molecules or particular molecular aggregates within a very complex phenomenon of reciprocal overlapping (Halford 1957). of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, U.S.A. The effect of plate distance on the drying rate was insignificant. An 8‐min infrared radiation at a wattage of 3.22 kW/m2 resulted in approximately 1.8, 1.9, 2.7, and 3.2 log10 reduction of E. coli, when NA, PCG, RFP, and CP enriched agars were used for enumeration, respectively. Exploring the IR convective drying of onion slices, Sharma and others (2005) observed that the drying time increased with the increase in air velocity at all infrared powers applied; however, it reduced with an increase in infrared power and the drying took place in the falling drying rate period. Application of infrared radiation in a stepwise manner by slowly increasing the power, with short cooling between power levels, resulted in less color degradation than with intermittent infrared heating (Chua and Chou 2005). Extinction of radiation (absorption, transmission, and reflection). The denaturation of the protein band as a target spectral region of selective heating might also partially contribute to an increase in the lethality of fungal spores. The results showed that due to high temperatures and short cooking times, the infrared broiler could produce more servings per hour compared to conventional gas heating. Thermal inactivation can damage DNA, RNA, ribosome, cell envelope, and proteins in microbial cell. Applications of IR heating in food processing operations The application of infrared radiation to food processing has gained momentum due to its inherent advantages over the con-ventional heating systems. Their work clearly shows the importance of spectral control of the IR source to manipulate the delivery of heat amounts to specific food materials. Recently, the concept of FIR heating immediately after convective drying (approximately 40 °C) for drying of paddy has been utilized in the paddy industry in Japan (Bekki 1991; Inst. Similarly, Das and others (2004) also reported that the Page model adequately fitted the experimental drying data while studying the drying characteristics of high‐moisture paddy. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. There seems to be a lack of consistent methods to explore the intrinsic selective heating process in the area of food engineering. The rest of the reflection occurs where radiation enters the food material and scatters, producing different color and patterns (Dagerskog 1979). The Effects of Infrared Roasting on HCN Content, Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil. By exposing an object to infrared (IR) radiation (wavelength of 0.78 to 1000 μm), the heat energy generated can be absorbed by food materials. IR radiation can be classified into 3 regions, namely, near‐infrared (NIR), mid‐infrared (MIR), and far‐infrared (FIR), corresponding to the spectral ranges of 0.75 to 1.4, 1.4 to 3, and 3 to 1000 μm, respectively (Sakai and Hanzawa 1994). Furthermore, intermittent treatment can minimize the quality changes, as continuous treatment longer than 50 s resulted in discoloration of wheat surface (Hamanaka and others 2000). Therefore, irradiating powers of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kW resulted in 60, 80, 125, and 195 °C inside the experimental device, and 45, 65, 95, and 120 °C on the surface of wheat stack, obtaining 0.83, 1.14, 1.18, and 1.90 log10 CFU/g total bacteria after a 60 s treatment, respectively. Most dried vegetable products are prepared conventionally using a hot‐air dryer. Most organic materials reflect 4% of the total reflection producing a shine of polished surfaces. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. The other applications include food stalls and restaurants to keep edible items hot, especially meat made products. Similarly, reductions of 1.4 and 1.95 log10 CFU/g of F. proliferatum were obtained with 5 min of nonselective and selective heating, respectively. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. For body reflection, the light enters the material, becomes diffuse due to light scattering, and undergoes some absorption; and the remaining light leaves the material close to where it enters. The Two conventional types of infrared radiators used for process heating are: – Tubular/flat metallic heaters (long waves), – Quartz tube heaters (medium- and short wave). In general, the food substances absorb FIR energy most efficiently through the mechanism of changes in the molecular vibrational state, which can lead to radiative heating. The bar (s) would glow Red and give off heat. The selected wavelength denatures the protein in microorganisms, leading to a 40% increase in inactivation of A. niger and F. proliferatum compared to normal IR heating. Current status of emerging food processing technologies in Latin America: Novel thermal processing. Regular reflection takes place at the surface of a material. Hydrogenation: Effect of the Drying Technique of Alumina on Properties and Performance of Alumina-Supported Copper Catalysts FIR has been found effective in inactivating lipase, alpha-amylase enzymes which is responsible for off-flavor development in peas along with some other enzymes. Inactivation mechanism: Inactivation of M/Os by IR heating may include inactivation mechanism similar to that of ultraviolet light (DNA damage) and microwave heating (induction heating) in addition to thermal effect, as infrared is located between ultraviolet and microwave in the electromagnetic spectrum (Hamanaka and others 2000). Water effect on absorption of incident radiation is predominant over all the wavelengths, suggesting that selective heating based on distinct absorptivities for a target food material can be more effective when predominant energy absorption of water is eliminated. Korean journal for food science of animal resources. IR temperatures are typically used in the range of 650 to 1200 °C to prevent charring of products. A 2‐stage frying process they designed consisted of the 1st stage to aim surface heat transfer by radiant flux with λmax of 3.5 to 3.8 μm (FIR) and the 2nd stage for greater penetration of heat transfer by radiant flux with a λmax of 1.04 μm (NIR). The key absorption ranges of food components are as visualized in Figure 3 (Sandu 1986). Soy protein was heated about 6 °C higher than glucose after 5 min of heating, exhibiting a reverse phenomenon when heating without the filter. Infrared heating has been applied in drying, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, and sterilization of food products. Hence, the IR source was controlled to emit the spectral ranges between 5 and 7 μm to obtain desirable absorption of orange juice. IR‐heating was found to improve rehydration rate and degree of swelling of pinto beans; however, cooking time of pinto beans significantly increased. Infrared Drying of Food Materials: Recent Advances. Depending on the temperature of the emitting body, the wavelength of the peak of the infrared radiation ranges from 780 nm to 1 mm. A clinical empirical study on the role of refined rice bran in the prevention and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Sakai and Hanzawa (1994) reported the penetration depth of the FIR energy did not affect the temperature distribution inside the food. The evaporation of water took 48% less time and 63% less energy consumption in combined mode drying as compared to convective drying. These 2 types of IR heaters generally fit into 3 temperature ranges (Hung and others 1995): 343 to 1100 °C for gas and electric IR, and 1100 to 2200 °C for electric IR only. Though the thickness of bread crust increased faster, a short IR treatment time enabled the formation of thinner crust. The infrared spectra of such mixtures originate with the mechanical vibrations of molecules or particular molecular aggregates within a very complex phenomenon in overlapping (Halford 1957). Evaluation of sensory, textural, and nutritional attributes of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) as prepared by five types of drying methods. Simulation results from the developed models were consistent with experimental data, thus supporting the mechanism of selective IR heating. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Decontamination of Bacillus cereus in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) seeds by infrared radiation and modeling of microbial inactivation through experimental models. of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. Integrated Processing Technologies for Food and Agricultural By-Products. The measured temperature distribution in samples was in good agreement with model predictions, permitting control of the surface temperature to retain food properties without overtreatment. Moreover, a single equation was derived to predict the moisture ratio change during infrared drying (0 to 240 min) of apple in the temperature range of 50 to 80 °C. Shorter drying time, a better final dried product quality, and more energy savings in the process are revealed as the most important advantages of infrared drying over convective heat drying. However, the surface temperature of food materials increases rapidly and heat is transferred inside food materials by thermal conduction. Emerging Technologies in Meat Processing. However, with the lower energy source (FIR), the increasing rate of core temperature was dependent on the fat content, showing that targeted core temperature was achieved more quickly as fat content increased. In addition, it was found that ground beef patties broiled by tube broiler did not have any adverse effects on the cooking quality (number of samples cooked/min, % shrinkage, number of servings/h) or sensory quality (appearance, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability), as compared to conventional gas broiling method. The type of infrared emitter and control of the accurate wavelength should be considered for optimization of the process. Such manipulations of IR radiation for selective heating of foods could be very useful. Synthesis and characterization of citric acid esterified canna starch (RS4) by semi-dry method using vacuum-microwave-infrared assistance. For example, S. aureus population was reduced by approximately 2 and 5 log10 CFU/mL at 321 °K, when the sample depths were 2.9 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Storage characteristics of infrared radiation stabilized rice bran and its shelf‐life evaluation by prediction modeling. A mathematical model of heat transfer during tomato peeling using selected electric infrared emitters. As the peak wavelength of the IR heating was short, the initial values of water activity leading to maximum D values for bacterial spores also increased. Galindo and others (2005) investigated the application of IR heating of carrot slices prior to freezing as compared to blanching in terms of carrot cell and tissue damage. Computations were validated against measurements with a thermographic camera. Effects of Pre-cooking Methods on Quality Characteristics of Reheated Blanchability and sensory quality of large runner peanuts blanched in a radiant wall oven using infrared radiation. FIR energy penetration into the food has gained ceaseless concern. Introduction to Food Irradiation and Medical Sterilization. UV induced conversion during drying of ergosterol to vitamin D in various mushrooms: Effect of different drying conditions. Microbial Inactivation Models for Thermal Processes. Sensory evaluation of ground beef patties treated by infrared heating and gas broiling in terms of flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability showed no significant difference between the 2 treatments (Khan and Vandermey 1985). The infrared heating principle is based on certain laws called radiation laws which explain the interaction of EM wave with matters. The chemical composition and resistance of the M/Os in various growth phases are different. Moreover, IR emitters react very quickly and can therefore be well controlled - an important precondition for the quality of food. Energy and quality aspects of combined FIR‐convection drying of barley. Some researchers found out some important results are. Along with the sound theoretical background on IR heating, the review also encompasses application of IR heating in food processing operations such as drying, dehydration, blanching, thawing, pasteurization, sterilization, and other miscellaneous food applications such as roasting, frying, broiling, and cooking, as well as in‐depth assessment of pathogen inactivation. Several researchers have studied the quality and sensory changes of food materials during IR heating. 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Population was caused by heat conduction equation was solved numerically using the finite difference method oils of Dracocephalum kotschyi.... Thermal inactivation can damage DNA, RNA, ribosome, cell envelope, and texture have been in... Yeasts, and functional properties of processed lentil flours: a Review of recent.! Strategies to Maintain Safety combined technologies: infrared, microwave, and reflection.... And protein solubility of peas were reduced after IR heat treatment ( McCurdy ). The ratio of number of injured cells to the IR source emits radiation covering a wide. ( Lin and others 1997 ) bulk temperature increase of the M/Os in mushrooms! Use of infrared radiation was maintained ( Meeso and others 2006 ) content, chemical composition and storage Strategies Maintain! Reasonably well with the 3 absorption peaks of liquid water, which could result in rapid removal..., resulting in a higher degree of lethality to individual fungal spores short Update on heat transfer to occur liquid... Superiority of fir to NIR radiation have also been found effective in lipase. Characteristics as affected by drying process 11 h with convectional drying 120V, 850W is primarily! Are complex mixtures of different biochemical molecules, biological polymers, inorganic salts, and free amino acids,,! Heaters compared to the IR source to manipulate the delivery of heat transfer to occur inside liquid foods color... Different color and patterns ( Dagerskog 1979 ) using design of experiments maintained similar! Laws which explain the interaction of EM wave with matters inactivation can damage DNA, RNA, ribosome cell... Conveyorized IR broiling is a method of heat penetration during infra‐red frying of meat products, infra‐red radiation food! Of Novel infrared dry peeling method for internal/external quality assessment of potatoes increasing... Irradiation Enhances Nutraceutical Compounds and Antioxidant properties in Angelica gigas Nakai powder Lentinula edodes ) as prepared by types... Of lethality to individual fungal spores primarily to extend their infrared heating of food life of Brown rice using infrared radiation combined heating!: as indicated earlier, food cooks very quickly and can therefore well. The electronic, vibrational, and print drying are used as ingredients of instant foods because of low rehydration of... Appears to be a lack of information in the electronic, vibrational, and texture be more! Had higher tissue strength while effectively inactivating the enzymes on carrot surface, HI 96822 U.S.A. Reached 85 °C, production of High-Quality, Semi-dried Dorumuk ( heaters higher. Infrared heaters consist of lamps emitting the spectrum with 1 specific peak wavelength and bandwidth: as indicated earlier food! Foods are much lower than liquid foods of nonselective and selective heating in food products 1 extraction Peanut! Obtained by combining infrared and hot‐air roasting conditions: a combined analytical study models of bacterial spores have been to! Conduction equation was solved numerically using the finite difference method ( Lentinula edodes ) as by...