Xenophon is well-known for his "Anabasis" and other writings about battles and politics, but here he gives a description of Greek home life and the relation between the sexes and family members. Cyrus was observed to have more docility than any of his years and to show more submission to those of an advanced age than any other children, though of a condition inferior to his own. 349 BCE. Xenophon c. 430 B.C.-c. 354 B.C. He who eats with most pleasure is he who least requires sauce. Ancient Greek historian and philosopher For other uses, see Xenophon (disambiguation). Leadership (“a harder skill than agriculture”) is often the real subject. It was also a time of political difficulties. Remember how many statesmen have helped raise new leadership to power—and then been overthrown by their own protégés! Xenophon was born during the early years of the Peloponnesian War, in the outlying deme of Athens called Erchia. He became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, and as the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge wrote, "the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior". Let us go through these quotes from the great Greek historian. It is no disgrace but honourable rather to steal, except such things as the law forbids; Whatever you determine to be right, with diligence endeavour to perform. There is small risk a general will be regarded with contempt by those he leads, if, whatever he may have to preach, he shows himself best able to perform. Xenophon's Oeconomicus. Xenophon wrote the Cyropaedia to outline his political and moral philosophy. Xenophon (Hiero) Excess of grief for the dead is madness; for it is an injury to the living, and the dead know it not. We must find a way to eat them alive! Battles are decided more by the morale of the troops than by their bodily strength. His work ‘Cyropaedia’ clearly supports pro-oligarchic polity. As in Semonides (7.83–93), the good wife is like a queen bee in the beehive (7.32 ff.). In Memorabilia Socrates quotes Aspasia as saying that the matchmaker should report truthfully on the good characteristics of the man. The Persian Expedition book. IV.-XENOPHON'S OECONOMICUS.1 In the preface the writer tells us that he does not propose to set forth a complete recension'of the text of the Oeconomicus, but to exhibit the dialogue in its original form, divested of those additions which have been foisted into it from early times. He documented historical facts of his era. Xenophon With An English Translation, Volume 3 Xenophon 13july2020 ) on amazon each 10 lines of greek text (one-third of an oct page, 1904) and corresponding vocabulary (7 or fewer times) and notes. Xenophon of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν , Ancient Greek: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 431 BC – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, philosopher and soldier. The "Oeconomicus" is an interesting work. Athenian historian and soldier. 85 Xenophon's work found a particularly receptive audience in England. There can be no life without soil and no soil without life; they have evolved together.” --- Charles E. Kellogg, USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1938 “Land, then, is not merely soil; it is a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals.” Journal Entries. In this excerpt from Xenophon's Oeconomicus (Household Management), Ischomachus tells Socrates how he began to train his fifteen-year-old bride. He admired his teacher very much (along with fellow protege Plato). In this difficult and fascinating world lived Xenophon, a great Greek historian and writer. Most people, when they are set upon looking into other people's affairs, never turn to examine themselves. What immediately distinguishes these Socratic writings from those of Plato is the more plebian character of their interlocutors. Along with his prolific work as a historian, Xenophon had major interest in politics. Xenophon of Athens (/ ˈ z ɛ n ə f ən,-ˌ f ɒ n /; Greek: Ξενοφῶν, Ancient Greek: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC) was an Athenian historian, philosopher, and soldier. As the son of Gryllus, Xenophon was born in 431 BC and grew up to become … In the process, he conveys the source of every individual's pride in himself, thus defining for each a conception of human excellence or virtue. Xenophon’s most popular work has to be Hellenica which covered the continuation of the history of Peloponnecian war. Even though he was born in Athens, he was closely associated with the arch rival city-state of Sparta. A Persian army being then subject to great inconveniences, for their horses are tied and generally shackled to prevent them from running away, and if an alarm happens, a Persian has the housing to fix, his horse to bridle, and his corslet to put on before he can mount. They are too well aware that to violence attach enmities and dangers, whereas results as good may be obtained by persuasion safely and amicably. When a horse wants to display himself...he lifts his neck up high and flexes his poll haughtily, and picks his legs up freely, and keeps his tail up. Those men who, in war, seek to preserve their lives at any rate commonly die with shame and ignominy, while those who look upon death as common to all, and unavoidable, and are only solicitous to die with honour, oftener arrive at old age and, while they live, live happier. Socrates gave a lifetime to the outpouring of his substance in the shape of the greatest benefits bestowed on all who cared to receive them. Xenophon wrote four works about Socrates: the Memorabilia, the Oeconomicus, the Symposium, and the Apology of Socrates. Xenophon was a Greek historian, philosopher, mercenary, and a disciple of Socrates. In Memorabilia Socrates quotes Aspasia as saying that the matchmaker should Xenophon mentions Aspasia twice in his Socratic writings: in Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus. “Land, then, is not merely soil; it is a fountain of energy flowing through a --- Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, 1949 “Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock core of the earth and the living things on its surface. In this difficult and fascinating world lived Xenophon, a great Greek historian and writer. Here, we will see his biography and his most important works, paying special attention to his masterpiece Anabasis. Xenophon of Athens (/ ˈ z ɛ n ə f ən,-ˌ f ɒ n /; Greek: Ξενοφῶν, Ancient Greek: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian. Leadership (“a harder skill than agriculture”) is often the real subject. The first passage contrasts the success, from a purely economic point of view, of some marriages with the failure of others. “You are well aware that it is not numbers or strength that bring the victories in war. Xenophon was a Greek historian, philosopher, mercenary, and a disciple of Socrates. The two quotes show that women were married young so that they may be trained up by their husbands. Xenophon’s works includes a selection of Socratic dialogues; these writings are completely preserved. In Greece, the fifth century B.C. This was the main reason why he was accused of treason and subjected to exile by the Athenians. There were great philosophers, mathematicians, historians, and politicians. No, it is when … (is marriage is erotic. In a summer campaign, leaders must always endure their share of the sun and the heat and, in winter, the cold and the frost. “To be a successful farmer one must first know the nature of the soil.” --- Xenophon, Oeconomicus, 400 B.C. The Apology is an interesting complement to Plato's account of Socrates' defense at his trial. OECONOMICUS. Do positions explored in Butler's Antigone's Claim — in Butler's reading of Sophocles' Antigone — pose a challenge in any way to ways of seeing gender in Xenophon's Oeconomicus? Greek historian and philosopher. The Persian Expedition book. In this excerpt from Xenophon's Oeconomicus (Household Management), Ischomachus tells Socrates how he began to train his fifteen-year-old bride. It is one of the earliest works on economics in its original sense of household management, and a significant source for … We must find a way to eat them alive!”, “Most of us are always trying to increase our wealth, but you and your officers seem far more concerned with perfecting your souls.”, “Remember the lessons of history. does quote 2 validate or challenge quote 1? He is known for recording historical data during 5 th and 4 … He thinks it can As Sarah Pomeroy has remarked of the Oeconomicus, Xenophon's original interest in the domestic economy reinforced civic values: ‘The oikoi constituted the foundation of the polis and served to reproduce the citizen population; therefore strengthening the individual oikoi would result in a more stable and vigorous polis.’ 77 This was also evident in Bradley's claim that oeconomy earned men ‘Honour and Reputation’ and taught (p.40) them self-governance… There were great philosophers, mathematicians, historians, and politicians. No human being will ever know the truth, for even if they happened to say it by chance, they would not know they had done so. What am I lying here for?...We are lying here as though we had a chance of enjoying a quiet time...Am I waiting until I become a little older? Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of, Cyrus the Great: The Arts of Leadership and War. XENOPHON'S PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WIFE1 Xenophon's Oeconomicus contains two passages (3.IO-I5 and 7.4-10.13) in which the relations of husband and wife are discussed. Xenophon is one of Socrates’ most famous students, responsible for presenting in his Memorabilia, Apology, Oeconomicus and Symposium, dialogues … If any among you covet riches, let him endeavour to overcome, for the victorious not only preserve their own possessions but acquire those of the enemy. IV.-XENOPHON'S OECONOMICUS.1 In the preface the writer tells us that he does not propose to set forth a complete recension'of the text of the Oeconomicus, but to exhibit the dialogue in its original form, divested of those additions which have been foisted into it from early times. For in the very nature of things, success tends to create pride and blindness in the hearts of men, while suffering teaches them to be patient and strong.”, “No human being will ever know the truth, for even if they happened to say it by chance, they would not know they had done so.”, “You are well aware that it is not numbers or strength that bring the victories in war. was a time of cultural splendor. Read 357 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. He thinks it can Xenophon, in his work Oeconomicus, provides one of the clearest views on this male-female separation when he explains: “I think the god from the very beginning designed the nature of women for the indoor work and concerns and the nature of man for the outdoor work. The two quotes show that women were married young so that they may be trained up by their husbands. In other words, he made those who lived in his society better men and sent them on their way rejoicing. Xenophon's Symposium portrays a dinner party at which Socrates speaks of love; and Oeconomicus has him giving advice on household management and married life. The most famous section is an account of how the rich Ischomachus trains his ingenuous young wife for an important role in running their home. A man may hate cruelty and lies, but if he’s never given an opportunity to show what he’s made of, no one will remember him when he dies. I will choosing to die rather than to remain alive without freedom and beg, as an alternative to death, a vastly inferior life. Background. Let a man sow a field or plant a farm never so well, yet he cannot foretell who will gather in the fruits; another may build him a house of fairest proportion, yet he knows not who will inhabit it. How many powerful men have craved to dominate the world—and by overreaching have lost everything they once possessed!”, “for as they who use no bodily exercises are awkward and unwieldy in the actions of the body, so they who exercise not their minds are incapable of the noble actions of the mind, and have not courage enough to undertake anything worthy of praise, nor command enough over themselves to abstain from things that are forbid.”, “he who marries a beautiful woman in hopes of being happy with her knows not but that even she herself may be the cause of all his uneasinesses;”, “...men unite against none so readily as against those whom they, “For in the very nature of things, success tends to create pride and blindness in the hearts of men, while suffering teaches them to be patient and strong.” “Well spoken, Gobryas!” exclaimed”, “When a horse wants to display himself...he lifts his neck up high and flexes his poll haughtily, and picks his legs up freely, and keeps his tail up.”, “The suffering of the leader is always lightened by his glory. They convince their men that dishonest behavior leads to great wealth.”, “Truly, men often fail to understand their own weaknesses,” I said neutrally, “and their lack of self-knowledge can bring terrible disasters down on their own heads.”, “The man who doesn't know his own ability is ignorant of himself.”, “پیروزی در مسابقات ورزشی المپیا را نباید جلوه‌ی فضیلت‌های ایزدی ورزشکاران دانست، بلکه شایسته است که علم و سوفیا را بر نیروی پهلوانان و اسبان برتر شمرد”, “Men, the enemy troops you can see are all that stands between us and the place we have for so long been determined to reach. see attempting to rule over them. There is a deep—and usually frustrated—desire in the heart of everyone to act with benevolence rather than selfishness, and one fine instance of generosity can inspire dozens more. 430 to ca. So much so that some conjecture that Socrates would not have been sentenced to death if Xenophon had been in Athens instead of on a military expedition in Persia. Xenophon lived 444-357 BCE. The Oeconomicus is unique in Greek literature in combining a discussion of the proper management of a family or household and didactic material on agriculture within a Socratic dialogue. “If the soil is destroyed, then our liberty of action and choice are gone ...” --- W.C. Lowdermilk, 1953 A horse is a thing of beauty... none will tire of looking at him as long as he displays himself in his splendor. His other works include Anabasis, Cyropaedia and Agesilaus. I have noticed this point too, my friends, that in soldiering the people whose one aim is to keep alive usually find a wretched and dishonorable death, while the people who, realizing that death is the common lot of all men, make it their endeavour to die with honour, somehow seem more often to reach old age and to have a happier life when they are alive. Even though there is no clear evidence about his opposition to democracy, he preferred aristocracy over it. His father Gryllus owned and supervised an estat… People often say what is right and do what is wrong; but nobody can be in the wrong if he is doing what is right. Be the first to learn about new releases! As the son of Gryllus, Xenophon was born in 431 BC and grew up to become … Quotes attributed to Aeschylus include: 1) “God loves to help those who work to help themselves.” 2) “The words of truth are simple.” 3) “He is determined not to seem, but to be, the best.” Xenophon. This documentation also expresses his high regards for the first Persian emperor Cyrus the Great. Xenophon became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, with noted military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge saying of him, “the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior.” He established the precedent for many logistical operations and was among the first to use flanking maneuvers and feints. They drank this with a reed, out of the vessel that held the beer, upon which they saw the barley swim. Men, the enemy troops you can see are all that stands between us and the place we have for so long been determined to reach. THE ESTATE MANAGER (Oeconomicus)) by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue about household management and agriculture. Quotes attributed to Aeschylus include: 1) “God loves to help those who work to help themselves.” 2) “The words of truth are simple.” 3) “He is determined not to seem, but to be, the best.” Xenophon. Died At Age: 76. ...men unite against none so readily as against those whom they For what the horse does under compulsion, as Simon also observes, is done without understanding; and there is no beauty in it either, any more than if one should whip and spur a dancer. Here, we will see his biography and his most important works, paying special attention to his masterpiece Anabasis. In Greece, the fifth century B.C. He was an Athenian gentleman and conservative. Here, and in the accompanying Symposium we also obtain insight on life in Athens. Goodreads helps you follow your favorite authors. Xenophon c. 430 B.C.-c. 354 B.C. A collection of quotes from Greek historian Xenophon (430 BC - 354 BC). Xenophon's Socratic dialogues are really interesting, and unfairly neglected, I think. If you consider what are called the virtues in mankind, you will find their growth is assisted by education and cultivation. In The … You see that even the enemy did not dare to declare war against us till they had seized our generals, for they were sensible that, while we had commanders and yielded obedience to them, we were able to conquer them; but, having seized our commanders, they concluded that we should, from a want of command and discipline, be destroyed. Xenophon lets us know that he himself was present also, together with some unnamed other people. Well, Xenophon introduces the right and wrongs of womanhood in Athens in his writing, Oeconomicus. In both cases her advice is recommended to Critobulus by Socrates. The Peloponnesian War and the wars against the Persians took place during this time. Other articles where Oeconomicus is discussed: Xenophon: Socratic works: In Oeconomicus Socrates discusses agriculture and household management. Xenophon Quotes c.435 - c.354 BC. Xenophon provides entertaining portraits of Socrates' circle of friends in the "Symposium." To quote a dictum of Simon, what a horse does under compulsion he does blindly, and his performance is no more beautiful than would be that of a ballet-dancer taught by whip and goad. Published: (2011) The wealthy young Critobulus has In that foundational work of Western economic thought, Socrates is portrayed attempting to expound the … His work in Anabasis describes the proximity of Xenophon and Socrates. Xenophon lived 444-357 BCE. I see that it is impossible to remember a long poem without practice and repetition; so is forgetfulness of the words of instruction engendered in the heart that has ceased to value them. ... You can use double quotes to search for a series of words in a particular order. His views reflect conventional Athenian wisdom. For myself, I think that those who cultivate wisdom and believe themselves able to instruct their fellow-citizens as to their interests are least likely to become partisans of violence. Excess of grief for the dead is madness; for it is an injury to the living, and the dead know it not. Xenophon Oeconomicus : a social and historical commentary / by: Pomeroy, Sarah B. Greek historian and philosopher. In both cases her advice is recommended to Critobulus by Socrates. Xenophon (Hiero) The more dishes a man has on his table beyond what is sufficient, the sooner satiety in eating comes upon him. Sometimes the contrast is jarring, as when Xenophon recounts Socrates saying you should study geometry, astronomy, and math only insofar as you need them for practical tasks, and going further would only make you crazy. How so, how not? Xenophon: The Role of the Athenian Wife. Other articles where Oeconomicus is discussed: Xenophon: Socratic works: In Oeconomicus Socrates discusses agriculture and household management. The man who doesn't know his own ability is ignorant of himself. As for America, the media puts every idea in our head, and who better yet to examine than the Kardashian family empire. All the children of the great men in Persia are brought up at court, where they have an opportunity of learning great modesty, and where nothing immodest is ever heard or seen. Xenophon Armstrong, G Cyril (1969), "Introduction to Oeconomica", Aristotle XVIII, Loeb Classical Library; External links. oikos. Born On: 430 BC. In all labors, leaders must prove tireless if they want to enjoy the trust of their followers.”, “self-confidence should always ride side by side with a strong sense of humility.”, “Most people, when they are set upon looking into other people's affairs, never turn to examine themselves.”, “I made my people understand the crucial difference between modesty and self-control. The most famous section is an account of how the rich Ischomachus trains his ingenuous young wife for an important role in running their home. Memorabilia, Apology, Oeconomicus, and Symposium were all Xenophon’s gospels to Socrates. Xenophon is well-known for his "Anabasis" and other writings about battles and politics, but here he gives a description of Greek home life and the relation between the sexes and family members. 44 Xenophon Quotes About Leadership & Wisdom . I will venture to maintain that where the teacher is not pleasing to the pupil, there is no education. On making prisoners of our generals, they expected that we should perish from want of direction and order. Welcome back. In Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates and in Oeconomicus, a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher through Xenophon's eyes. Xenophon mentions Aspasia twice in his Socratic writings: in Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus. It is a facet of antiquity one rarely sees. He believed that it was the virtue and leadership qualities of the man which held the vast Persian Empire together. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. “If the soil is destroyed, then our liberty of action and choice are gone...” --- W.C. Lowdermilk, 1953 was a time of cultural splendor. His views reflect conventional Athenian wisdom. As much as possible, you must let others share in your glory, so that they never lose heart.” I”, We’d love your help. We have collected his quotes and thoughts from his books, and observations about politics, society etc. He did this by endowing a fictional version of the boyhood of Cyrus the Great, founder of the first Persian Empire, with the qualities of what Xenophon considered the ideal ruler.Historians have asked whether Xenophon's portrait of Cyrus was accurate or if Xenophon imbued Cyrus with events from Xenophon's own life. It is the The modest person, I told them, will do nothing blameworthy in the light of day, but a true paragon of self-control—which we all should strive to be—avoids unworthy actions even in the deepest secrecy of his private life.”, “What am I lying here for?...We are lying here as though we had a chance of enjoying a quiet time...Am I waiting until I become a little older?”, “There is a deep—and usually frustrated—desire in the heart of everyone to act with benevolence rather than selfishness, and one fine instance of generosity can inspire dozens more.”, “battles are decided more by the morale of the troops than by their bodily strength.”, “Misleaders are slow to work hard but quick to act on greed. The Oeconomicus was also used as a key text by English humanists at Cambridge during the mid-1500s. Xenophon became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, with noted military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge saying of him, Much of his picture of Socrates aligns with Plato's. The Peloponnesian War and the wars against the Persians took place during this time. Well Socrates as soon as I had tamed her and she was relaxed enough to talk, I asked her the following question "Tell me, my dear," said I, "do you understand why I married you … Xenophon was elected a commander of the Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries at the age of 30. He desired to be well with those in power, that his injustice might escape punishment. Wherever magistrates were appointed from among those who complied with the injunctions of the laws, Socrates considered the government to be an aristocracy. Machiavelli read Xenophon and was so impressed by him that Niccolo cited Xenophon’s works eight times in The Prince – more times than he cited Plato, Aristotle and Cicero combined.. Xenophon was author of many works including histories and philosophical dialogues, However, it is his Cyropaedia – The Education of Cyrus – that was an important guide for Renaissance humanists in the … Read 357 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Died On: 354 BC. Moderation in all things healthful; total abstinence from all things harmful. For drink, there was beer which was very strong when not mingled with water, but was agreeable to those who were used to it. In Memorabilia Xenophon adds to Plato's picture of Socrates from a different viewpoint. He is known for recording historical data during 5th and 4th century BC. “In my experience, men who respond to good fortune with modesty and kindness are harder to find than those who face adversity with courage. Remember how often whole peoples have allowed themselves to be persuaded to go to war by ‘wise’ men—and then been utterly destroyed by the very enemy they agreed to attack! You know that neither numbers nor strength give the victory, but that side which, with the assistance of the gods, attacks with the greatest resolution is generally irresistible. Remember how often leaders have chosen to treat their friends like slaves—and then perished in the revolutions caused by their idiotic methods! "Oeconomicus" is concerned most directly with the character and purpose of Socrates' political philosophy. Read Xenophon biography. As for America, the media puts every idea in our head, and who better yet to examine than the Kardashian family empire. “To be a successful farmer one must first know the nature of the soil.” --- Xenophon, Oeconomicus, 400 B.C. “…she wasn’t fifteen years old when she came to me, and in the time before that she had lived such a protected life that she saw and heard as little as possible…” (Xenophon, Oeconomicus 7.5).